Yes, and those changes can be either short-term – occurring during the meditation itself – or long-term, occurring over years of practice.

All forms of meditation involve training the attention. ‘Open’ meditation means paying equal attention to everything without judging or being distracted. ‘Closed’ or ‘concentrative’ meditation entails paying intense and steady attention to just one thing, such as your breath, or a sound or
feeling. In line with this, brain scans show increased activity in parts of the frontal cortex associated with attentional control and in other areas depending on the kind of meditation. Emotional responses are also affected and increased activity is found in the circuits underlying positive emotions and emotional control.

Studying long-term effects is harder because any findings might be due to years of meditation, or might be just because people who learn to meditate and persevere with it for a long time are different from people who do not. Even so, research suggests that long-term meditators show more coherent activity across different brain areas, and that their brains age less quickly.

Source: BBC Knowledge

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